Choros Island may be small in size, but it is undoubtedly biologically important and globally significant. Two globally threatened seabirds nest on Choros Island: the IUCN Vulnerable Humboldt Penguin and the IUCN Endangered Peruvian Diving-petrel. The island also supports two threatened plant species, Alstroemeria philippii and Chorizanthe frankenioide.
Invasive rabbits on Choros Island are destroying the ecosystem by occupying seabird burrows, increasing erosion, and browsing on vegetation. Humboldt Penguins depend on intact burrows for nesting, while smaller seabirds use vegetation and burrows for hiding in order to avoid native predators. In July 2013, Island Conservation and local partners began assisting the Chilean Forestry Corporation (CONAF) in removing invasive rabbits from Choros Island.
In January 2014, after extensive monitoring, the partners announced the successful removal of invasive European rabbits from Choros Islan